This Code has
been prepared by the Canadian Medical Association as an ethical guide
for Canadian physicians, including residents, and medical students. Its
focus is the core activities of medicine – such as health promotion,
advocacy, disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation,
palliation, education and research. It is based on the fundamental
principles and values of medical ethics, especially compassion,
beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons, justice and
accountability. The Code, together with CMA policies on specific topics,
constitutes a compilation of guidelines that can provide a common
ethical framework for Canadian physicians. Physicians should be aware of
the legal and regulatory requirements that govern medical practice in
their jurisdictions. Physicians may experience tension between different
ethical principles, between ethical and legal or regulatory
requirements, or between their own ethical convictions and the demands
of other parties. Training in ethical analysis and decision-making
during undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education is
recommended for physicians to develop their knowledge, skills and
attitudes needed to deal with these conflicts. Consultation with
colleagues, regulatory authorities, ethicists, ethics committees or
others who have relevant expertise is also recommended.
1. Consider first the well-being of the patient.
2. Treat all patients with respect; do not exploit them for personal advantage.
3. Provide for appropriate care for your patient, including physical
comfort and spiritual and psycho-social support, even when cure is no
4. Practice the art and science of medicine competently and without impairment.
5. Engage in lifelong learning to maintain and improve your professional knowledge, skills and attitudes.
6. Recognize your limitations and the competence of others and when
indicated, recommend that additional opinions and services be sought.
7. Resist any influence or interference that could undermine your professional integrity.
8. Contribute to the development of the medical profession, whether
through clinical practice, research, teaching, administration or
advocating on behalf of the profession or the public.
9. Refuse to participate in or support practices that violate basic human rights.
10. Promote and maintain your own health and well-being.
Responsibilities to the Patient
11. Recognize and disclose conflicts of interest that arise in the
course of your professional duties and activities, and resolve them in
the best interest of patients.
12. Inform your patient when your personal values would influence the
recommendation or practice of any medical procedure that the patient
needs or wants.
13. Do not exploit patients for personal advantage.
14. Take all reasonable steps to prevent harm to patients; should harm occur, disclose it to the patient.
15. Recognize your limitations and, when indicated, recommend or seek additional opinions and services.
16. In determining professional fees to patients for non-insured
services, consider both the nature of the service provided and the
ability of the patient to pay, and be prepared to discuss the fee with
Initiating and Dissolving a Patient-Physician Relationship
17. In providing medical service, do not discriminate against any
patient on such grounds as age, gender, marital status, medical
condition, national or ethnic origin, physical or mental disability,
political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation or
socioeconomic status. This does not abrogate the physician's right to refuse to accept a patient for legitimate reasons.
18. Provide whatever appropriate assistance you can to any person with an urgent need for medical care.
19. Having accepted professional responsibility for a patient, continue
to provide services until they are no longer required or wanted, until
another suitable physician has assumed responsibility for the patient,
or until the patient has been given adequate notice that you intend to
terminate the relationship.
20. Limit treatment of yourself or members of your immediate family to
minor or emergency services and only when another physician is not
readily available; there should be no fee for such treatment.
Communication, Decision Making and Consent
21. Provide your patients with the information they need to make
informed decisions about their medical care, and answer their questions
to the best of your ability.
22. Make every reasonable effort to communicate with your patients in such a way that information exchanged is understood.
23. Recommend only those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that you
consider to be beneficial to your patient or to others. If a service is
recommended for the benefit of others, as for example in matters of public health, inform your patient of this fact and proceed only with
explicit informed consent or where required by law.
24. Respect the right of a competent patient to accept or reject any medical care recommended.
25. Recognize the need to balance the developing competency of minors
and the role of families in medical decision-making. Respect the
autonomy of those minors who are authorized to consent to treatment.
26. Respect your patient's reasonable request for a second opinion from a physician of the patient's choice.
27. Ascertain wherever possible and recognize your patient's wishes
about the initiation, continuation or cessation of life-sustaining
28. Respect the intentions of an incompetent patient as they were
expressed (e.g., through a valid advance directive or proxy designation)
before the patient became incompetent.
29. When the intentions of an incompetent patient are unknown and when
no formal mechanism for making treatment decisions is in place, render
such treatment as you believe to be in accordance with the patient's
values or, if these are unknown, the patient's best interests.
30. Be considerate of the patient's family and significant others and cooperate with them in the patient's interest.
Privacy and Confidentiality
31. Protect the personal health information of your patients.
32. Provide information reasonable in the circumstances to patients
about the reasons for the collection, use and disclosure of their
personal health information.
33. Be aware of your patient's rights with respect to the collection,
use, disclosure and access to their personal health information; ensure
that such information is recorded accurately.
34. Avoid public discussions or comments about patients that could
reasonably be seen as revealing confidential or identifying information.
35. Disclose your patients' personal health information to third
parties only with their consent, or as provided for by law, such as when
the maintenance of confidentiality would result in a significant risk
of substantial harm to others or, in the case of incompetent patients,
to the patients themselves. In such cases take all reasonable steps to
inform the patients that the usual requirements for confidentiality will
36. When acting on behalf of a third party, take reasonable steps to
ensure that the patient understands the nature and extent of your
responsibility to the third party.
37. Upon a patient's request, provide the patient or a third party with
a copy of his or her medical record, unless there is a compelling
reason to believe that information contained in the record will result
in substantial harm to the patient or others.
38. Ensure that any research in which you participate is evaluated both
scientifically and ethically and is approved by a research ethics board
that meets current standards of practice.
39. Inform the potential research subject, or proxy, about the purpose
of the study, its source of funding, the nature and relative probability
of harms and benefits, and the nature of your participation including
40. Before proceeding with the study, obtain the informed consent of
the subject, or proxy, and advise prospective subjects that they have
the right to decline or withdraw from the study at any time, without
prejudice to their ongoing care.
Responsibilities to Society
41. Recognize that community, society and the environment are important factors in the health of individual patients.
42. Recognize the profession's responsibility to society in matters
relating to public health, health education, environmental protection,
legislation affecting the health or well-being of the community and the
need for testimony at judicial proceedings.
43. Recognize the responsibility of physicians to promote equitable access to health care resources.
44. Use health care resources prudently.
45. Recognize a responsibility to give the generally held opinions of
the profession when interpreting scientific knowledge to the public;
when presenting an opinion that is contrary to the generally held
opinion of the profession, so indicate.
Responsibilities to the Profession
46. Recognize that the self-regulation of the profession is a
privilege and that each physician has a continuing responsibility to
merit this privilege and to support its institutions.
47. Be willing to teach and learn from medical students, residents, other colleagues and other health professionals.
48. Avoid impugning the reputation of colleagues for personal motives;
however, report to the appropriate authority any unprofessional conduct
by a colleague or concerns, based upon reasonable grounds, that a
colleague is practicing medicine at a level below an acceptable medical
standard, or that a colleague's ability to practice medicine competently
is affected by a chemical dependency or medical disability.
49. Be willing to participate in peer review of other physicians and to
undergo review by your peers. Enter into associations, contracts and
agreements only if you can maintain your professional integrity and
safeguard the interests of your patients.
50. Avoid promoting, as a member of the medical profession, any service (except your own) or product for personal gain.
51. Do not keep secret from colleagues the diagnostic or therapeutic agents and procedures that you employ.
52. Collaborate with other physicians and health professionals in the
care of patients and the functioning and improvement of health services.
Treat your colleagues with dignity and as persons worthy of respect.
Responsibilities to Oneself
53. Seek help from colleagues and appropriately qualified
professionals for personal problems that might adversely affect your
service to patients, society or the profession.
54. Protect and enhance your own health and well-being by identifying
those stress factors in your professional and personal lives that can be
managed by developing and practicing appropriate coping strategies.